Regulators are trying to divide various cryptocurrency projects into commodities and securities. All cryptocurrencies are only digital assets recorded in the blockchain. From my point of view, no cryptocurrency can be a commodity, as digital assets cannot
DDoS attacks are a significant threat to online services. The main objective of the attacks is to make a service unavailable. Cardano can be seen as an online service. It provides a platform for executing smart contracts, transferring funds, and other func
Many hacks on the Ethereum platform have used flash loans. An attacker can borrow a huge amount of funds without collateral, use it to make a profit, and then repay the loan in the same transaction. In this article, we will explain why we don't see this ki
Bitcoin uses the UTxO accounting model. For the IOG team, this model was not sufficient for the Cardano mission, so they extended it. Cardano uses the Extended UTxO model. In this article, we will explain the meaning of ‘Extended’.
The number of scams and the ingenuity of fraudsters in the crypto industry is endless. In 2021, tens of thousands of people reported financial losses related to crypto scams totaling over 1 billion USD. In 2022, based on various sources, it was around 3 to
In the Midnight Special video, Charles Hoskinson described the role of Cardano in the context of Midnight and partner chains. Midnight was mentioned several times, but the explanation revolved around interoperability, supernodes, a common set of rules, etc
Cardano is a SC platform. What does it mean and how is it different from Bitcoin? Bitcoin is seen primarily as an immutable monetary system. Cardano is a social and financial operating system. Bitcoin is simple and deliberately rigid. Cardano is a complex
In 2022, the Cardano Foundation started conducting an annual survey to assess the state of the Cardano developer ecosystem. The developers were asked 30 questions. In 2023, a second round of the survey took place with a similar set of questions. See how de
The blockchain network should serve as a decentralized public infrastructure available to all people on the planet. Similar to the internet. Blockchain, like any technology, requires the ability to change and evolve. Design flaws must be corrected. Technol
Most blockchains use some form of fee market to calculate transaction fees. When a large number of people want to use the blockchain, the fees go up. Fees become more expensive as the demand for block space increases. The amount of fees cannot be predicted
Cardano has a reserve from which new ADA coins are released into circulation every epoch. Coins from the reserve, along with transaction fees, are used for staking rewards and filling the project treasury. This article will focus on the monetary policy of
After the Cardano Summit and the interview with Eran Barak, CEO of the Midnight project, we have a slightly clearer idea of what Midnight will be for Cardano. In this article, we will try to answer the question of what a partner chain means. There is still
Preparation for on-chain governance takes place not only at the level of defining rules and processes through CIP-1694 but also on the technical side. In this article, we will introduce the Sancho Network. You will learn what is already possible to do on t
The Cardano Summit took place in Dubai at the weekend. Let's take a look at some news and interesting things that caught our attention.
Several relevant reasons threaten the success of the Cardano project. Let's look at them and consider if they are solvable.
The mem-pool is where transactions wait to be inserted into a block. Each block producer node needs to maintain its mem-pool. Having control over the mem-pool is an advantage that can be abused. In the article, you will learn what mem-pool is used for. We
Cardano's Ouroboros PoS uses probabilistic finality, where a block is considered final when enough blocks have been appended behind it. How many blocks must be appended and what actually happens to the transaction after the user submits it to the network?
The Edinburgh Decentralization Index (EDI) project is aimed at measuring the quality of decentralization of blockchain networks in a systematic way. The team announced the release of a tool that can measure the quality of block production decentralization
From the perspective of application developers, the UTxO model is fundamentally different from the account-based model. The account-based model is simple and offers developers high flexibility, especially if it is necessary to define complex execution logi
Midnight is still in the phase where developers can try it out on the dev-net. The community is asking what the relationship between Midnight and Cardano will be. We don't have enough information at the moment, but some things can be guessed.
Combining technologies can lead to new use cases. Cardano has the Atala PRISM project, which is a management system for decentralized identity (DID). Project Midnight will soon be launched, which will be able to use Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs. Let's think
It can be difficult for developers to take full advantage of the UTxO model because they have to take parallelization into account. Cardano does not allow maintaining a single global application state in the on-chain part of the smart contract. Each UTxO c
The first generation of network consensus was sequential, as the blockchain has a linear structure. Sequential processing is a manifestation of every new technology. Low efficiency usually prevents mass adoption or greater use of the technology. In history
Midnight is supposed to be a data protection blockchain that will be able to safeguard sensitive commercial and user data. Zero-knowledge proofs will be used for this. In the article, we will explain the basics of Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs.
When people talk about a blockchain attack, the 51% attack is most often mentioned. It is usually said that the attacker must gain dominance over the resource that is used in the given network consensus. That should be costly. However, the attacker does no
Cardano has native liquid staking. Ouroboros PoS does not require locking coins for a certain period of time in order to allow coins to be confiscated (slashed) for staker behavior that does not conform to the needs of the protocol. In this article, we wil
In 2010, Satoshi Nakamoto saved Bitcoin from certain death. The value overflow incident exposed the vulnerability of Bitcoin to human errors and malicious actors, as well as the lack of a formal process for dealing with such issues. About a year later, the
In this article, we will describe how the UTxO model works through an analogy with banknotes. We will refine this simplified view further.
Cardano allows you to send multiple assets to multiple recipients in a single transaction. The somewhat inappropriate term ‘transactions in transaction’ is sometimes used for this feature. Let's explain how transactions in the network that uses the UTx
The blockchain economics is easy to understand if you look at it as a business. Blockchain has costs to operate and must have sufficient revenue to cover them. To do this, it needs users who pay transaction fees. In the article, we will show what market me
Input Endorsers will increase the scalability of the Cardano network. Sharding is a popular solution with the same goal. The aim of the article is to point out the different concepts of both solutions, especially with regard to maintaining a uniform global
In the article, we will explain why the first-generation consensus algorithm of blockchain scales so little and what is the main cause of inefficiency. Next, we will show how Input Endorsers incorporate elements of parallelism and concurrency into the cons
Many perceive the team's existence with skepticism because they see it as a form of centralization. However, without a team, any blockchain would cease to exist. For example, in 2010 Satoshi saved Bitcoin from certain death. We will talk about what happene
On Thursday, September 21, the results of the voting in Catalyst Fund10 were announced. 192 projects from more than 1300 ideas received funding. 50M ADA coins will be distributed among these projects. 409K votes were cast, which is an increase of 12.5% com
The first block on the Cardano network was minted on September 23, 2017, at 11:44:51 PM. The network never needed any reboot or rollback of the blockchain. This is not quite common and can be considered a success. There was a single network incident from w
This article will look at Cardano's current scalability and consider how much Input Endorsers can improve it. We will not cover Hydra or other options for scaling Cardano. The closest improvement to the scalability of the first layer will be Input Endorser
Each blockchain network has a budget from which it pays those who provide it with resources. When the team fails to align incentives with the needs of the network, there is some inefficiency or degradation of the quality of key features. There must be many
Cardano uses the UTxO model and only small scripts are validated on-chain. Ethereum uses an account-based model and all application logic is implemented in smart contracts. Let's explore how these different approaches affect scalability options.
The Lace wallet allows users to delegate ADA to multiple pools from a single account. The same functionality can be achieved by creating multiple accounts, which is currently a widespread method. In this article, we will explain how multi-delegation is tec
Spending UTxO can be conditional with script-defined logic. In such a case, the spender of UTxO must provide the script with such data that will enable the unlocking of UTxO. In this article, we will look at how to lock UTxO and how to unlock it by executi
Cardano uses an innovative Extended UTxO accounting model to support multi-assets and smart contracts. It is different from the account-based model that is used by banks or Ethereum. In this article, we will briefly explain the difference between account-b
The term ossification is often used in the context of Bitcoin to refer to the difficulty of changing or updating the protocol. Many believe this is the best way for Bitcoin adoption. The IOG team, along with the community, took the exact opposite direction
Batchers are a concept used by some decentralized exchanges (DEXes) on Cardano to collect orders and execute swaps. Come learn more about them. We'll also explain why Cardano needs batchers and Ethereum doesn't.
People's interest in crypto wanes in a bear market. This also applies to Cardano. However, some trends are positive. Come take a look at the statistics and think about the results. It might surprise you that meme coins can beat Cardano. What does this indi
Cardano supports composability for its applications, by the two-layer architecture but mainly by the modular approach to smart contracts. Come read more about it. In the article, you will also learn more about scalability and parallelism. In conclusion, we
In our previous article, we explained how to run a script or smart contract on Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano. In this article, we will compare Cardano and Ethereum. We will focus mainly on fees. We will explain what the fees depend on and how they are aff
The first generation of blockchain is basically just a transactional network, similar to PayPal. Value can only be unconditionally transferred from Alice to Bob. Bitcoin is most commonly used for the simple transfer of value. However, there is a possibilit
Nodes in a distributed network do not have the same position in the network consensus. Nodes of block producers have a stronger position than ordinary full-nodes of users. In this article, we will talk about the role of full nodes in the context of the pro
Each Cardano node maintains its own version of the ledger. To be able to do this, a node needs connections with other nodes and the ability to decide whether to accept new blocks. Come and see how new blocks are appended at the end of the ledger and how th
I remember a time when Ethereum fees were exorbitant. People were not willing to pay high fees. It has been said that people will migrate to Cardano and other platforms because it will be cheaper and transactions will be faster. That partially happened. Ho